What is Shared Parenting?

Shared parenting is when children are brought up with the love and guidance of both parents.

There is much discussion about how to describe the continued involvement of both parents in the lives of their children following separation or divorce. ‘Shared parenting’, 'equal parenting’, ‘involved parenting’, 'co-operative parenting’, ‘parallel parenting’ and others are used.

The term preferred by FNF is shared parenting.

Unlike some of the others, it makes explicit that both parents must share this role. Co-operation should be earnestly sought, and equality is a desirable long-term objective, but ‘shared parenting’ captures these features and more.

Members can find further information in our Factsheets and Guides, as well as in our public section on Shared Parenting Research.

What do we mean by 'shared parenting'?

Firstly, shared parenting goes wider than the time each parent spends with their child(ren). It must involve the child spending a significant proportion of their time with each parent. But it does not imply a stated or fixed proportion of parenting time being allocated to each parent, much less that the child’s time must be divided equally between the two parents in every case.

There must be a proportion of parenting time that is so low that parenting can scarcely be said to be 'shared'. One could argue this level. What seems to be the 'standard ration' that children are offered - a fortnightly visit to their non-resident parent, plus some time around holidays - cannot be said to be shared parenting. Nor can parents with so little parenting time be effectively involved in any decisions that need to be taken.

It is important to note that shared parenting does not imply a single time in a child’s life. It refers to a childhood-long parenting plan. The plan is reviewed periodically and adapted to fit a child’s emotional, scholastic and physical needs as they grow.

Our definition revolves around the objectives to be achieved.


These are as follows:

1) That the children feel that they have two properly involved parents.

2) That one parent is not able to dominate the lives of the children at the expense of the other or to control the other parent via the children.

3) That the parents have broadly equal 'moral authority' in the eyes of the children and that the children have free access to both their parents if there are issues affecting them.

4) That the children are able to share the lives of both their parents 'in the round' - for example not spending all 'routine time' with one parent and only 'leisure time' with the other.

5) That the parents are in a position of legal and moral equality, and are considered in this light by the children as well as friends, neighbours, teachers etc as well as public authorities, this would apply to routine as well as major matters.

6) That there is no part of the children's lives, for example their school life or having friends, that one parent is excluded from by virtue of the allocation of parenting time or the law on separation/divorce and children.

7) That the children are not by virtue of the allocation of parenting time excluded from any part of either parent's life.

8) That the children spend enough time with both parents to be able to negate any attempts at ‘parental alienation'.

9) That the children do not develop stereotyped ideas from their parents about the roles of the sexes, for example that a father’s role is chiefly financial and a ‘giver of treats’, and that mothers have responsibility for everything else.

How to apply these criteria to particular families will be a matter of discussion and negotiation, taking into account the individual needs and wishes of the children and parents, and the circumstances in question. As always, the needs of the child must be paramount.

How do I proceed in the necessary direction?

1) That week-end contact begins with picking up the child(ren) from school/nursery on Friday and continues to delivering them on Monday. This will increase equality of parenting time, allow sufficient time for real shared activities and bonding, allow contact between the parent currently known as the “Non Resident Parent” and the school plus other parents and their children (which are likely to be their own children's friends). In the event of concerns about the parents meeting each other, the need for this will be reduced.

2) That there be mid-week contact, normally picking up the child from school/nursery, and, if practical, the child staying overnight. This will increase the range of activities that the children share with both parents. It is important, for example, that both parents are involved in homework.

3) That 'half the holidays' be interpreted as half the time school children are not at school rather than half the time the adults have as holidays. It should include having school training days and having other holidays and festival days, if the parents cannot both be involved.

The lives of babies and children too young to go to school are less constrained. Shared parenting will often mean a more equal allocation of parenting time than is possible for older children, which can benefit both parents e.g. by allowing them to do paid work more easily, as well as the child.

4) That special days - for example Christmas or other festival holidays, the children's and their siblings' birthdays - be equally shared if the parents cannot be together for them. That the children also be allowed to be with the relevant parent for days that are special for that parent - for example their birthdays and those of their grandparents, or for other festivals and important events. Examples are ‘take your child to work days’, sports fixtures (for both the children and the parents), Mothers’ Day with their mothers and Fathers’ Day with their fathers.

5) That the children are not put into day-care, after-school clubs, babysat or other alternatives to parental care, if one of their parents is available to look after them.

6) If one parent has demands that restrict their availability for parenting they should not be allowed to claim priority in the time they have available.

7) That time for the children to see their grandparents and wider family - on both sides of the family - must be adequate.

What evidence does FNF have for the importance of shared parenting?

52 MPs signed EDM 482, Children and Shared Parenting (26th January 2004), that:

'this House believes that children are best brought up with the full involvement of both their natural parents and, if possible, grandparents and members of their wider family; further believes that all children of separated parents are entitled to the love, personal care and support of both their natural parents in their everyday lives unless reason is shown otherwise; further believes that both parents have a duty to support the relationship of a child with the other parent; further believes that public and private institutions should recognise both parents of children with whom they deal; further believes that all involved parties should seek to minimise any loss of damage done by divorce or separation or alienation to children's relationships with either of their parents or with their wider family; further believes that the rewards of, and sacrifices of resources devoted to, parenting should be fairly shared between the parents; and calls for public policy to be adapted to remove obstacles to this objective.'

362 MPs signed EDM 128, Parenting Time Presumption (18th May 2005), that:

'this House believes that separated parents should each have a legal presumption of contact with their children, so that both parents can continue to parent their children and children are able to benefit from being parented by both their parents, as well as from contact with any grandparents and extended family members able and willing to play a role in their upbringing; and urges the Government to replace the legal term `contact' with `parenting time' and to ensure that parenting time orders can be and are made and enforced by the courts, save where a child's safety would be at risk.'

13 June 2012 - YouGov poll on fathers and their role within the family: Overwhelming support for equal rights when gaining custody:

YouGov’s poll on the role of fathers, as well as their responsibilities and rights within the family unit, has found overwhelming support among the British public for both parents to have equal rights when gaining custody, as well as shared responsibility for bringing up children. Britons also believe that the role of fathers has changed drastically within the last 50 years.  The poll found that the majority of Brits deem fathers, and their role within the family unit, as important.

  • 85% agree that fathers are instrumental in bringing up children
  • 95% of Brits also agree that both parents should share responsibility when bringing up children.
  • There is also overwhelming support, amongst the British public, for both parents to have equal rights when getting custody of their children (84%).

A father’s role has changed dramatically, according to Brits, with 86% agreeing that it has changed drastically within the last 50 years. However, Britons are divided when it comes to more traditional views - over half are in agreement that a father’s main role should be to provide for the family by working and earning money, with 42% disagreeing with the statement. Detailed Poll Results

May 2016 - Family Disadvantage and the Gender Gap in Behavioural and Educational Outcomes:

David Autor et al. Abstract: Using birth certificates matched to schooling records for Florida children born 1992 - 2002, they assess whether family disadvantage disproportionately impedes the pre-market development of boys. They find that, relative to their sisters, boys born to disadvantaged families have higher rates of disciplinary problems, lower achievement scores, and fewer high-school completions. Evidence supports that this is a causal effect of the post-natal environment; family disadvantage is unrelated to the gender gap in neonatal health. They conclude that the gender gap among black children is larger than among white children in substantial part because black children are raised in more disadvantaged families.

Full Paper

end faq

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